In general, coupling reaction is one of the reactions where two hydrocarbon fragments (or atoms) are coupled with the aid of catalyst. It is widely used in pharmaceutial industry. Cross-coupling reactions are those in which two different starting materials, each of which is usually endowed with an activating group, and are reacted together with the aid of a metal catalyst. The result is the loss of the two activating groups and the formation of a new covalent bond between the remaining fragments.
Problems needing attention in coupling reaction process
The most commonly used catalyst for coupling reaction is palladium, but a growing number of studies have shown that nickel is a catalyst. More importantly, copper, platinum, iron, cobalt, amine and phosphine are introduced into the catalyst.
Leaving group X in an organic partner is usually a halogen. In general, chloride is the most desirable group because of its low cost. The main metal of an organic partner is usually tin, zinc, silicates, or boron.
The palladium coupling reaction of triphenylphosphine and sulfuric acid reaction of water-soluble sulfonated phosphine ligands in aqueous solution can be obtained. In general, oxygen in the air is more capable of damaging the coupling reaction, because many of the reactions occur through unsaturated metal complexes, which have no 18 valence electrons. Some catalysts are susceptible to toxic heterocyclic compounds that react at high temperatures for long periods of time. To avoid this, chemists often use pressure reactors to speed up reactions at high temperatures and pressures. Q-tube and microwave frequency synthesizer can be safe pressure reactor.
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BOC Sciences provides high-quality, low-cost, high-tech products to customers around the world. We have employed a dedicated staff of professional chemists to help you develop the most efficient process for synthesis of complex drug substances. With diverse state-of-the-art technologies and approaches, clients’ synthetic route can be developed and optimized in the most cost effective way. Each step of product synthesis is subject to BOC Sciences’ stringent quality control. Typical delivery specifications include:
At BOC Sciences, our customers will be resourced with various kinds of synthetic and analytical instrumentations. Our experts will work with you to optimize the synthetic route and approaches. Additionally, according to your needs and the properties of chemical substances, a wide range of custom services are available in our laboratory.